First this, as it relates to Earwa:

no causal chains are finite and do not

contain loops.

The logos is in fact with a beginning and therefore an end, since our lord-and-savior-Kellhus found that there were loops

. Taken the paper linked, we can say that Earwa is literally the world of our ancestors, ie pre-Einstein world, and therefore the proof applies direct to Earwa. From this, assuming the paper is correct (I have no way of really knowing since I'm sure most of it was beyond me anyway), We can then know for certain that there is in fact just 1 ultimate god, be it the Solitary God/Zero-God/Whatever.

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Back to IRL:

Just would like to point out a few things:

However, this argument does not remain valid if the universe has origined from

a Big Bang. If the universe expands out of a zero-volume point at t = 0, there no

causal relation can connect an event at some time t > 0 of the existing universe by

an event t < 0 before the Big Bang. In the watchmaker analogy, the watch could

not have been wound up.

Essentially the paper doesn't apply to our univerise if Einstein and special-relativity exist - which by all accounts they do.

This conclusion makes more of an impact given the following, which is later in the 2nd page:

We nevertheless embrace the result of the argument, as far as it is restricted

to the types of steady-state universes for which it was originally intended.

Meaning "Ok lets pretend like post Euclid mathmatics don't exist", and from there goes on to prove a monothesitc universe exists mathematically.

Hopefully that makes this paragraph make more sense:

It goes without saying that anything beyond the three-dimensional Euclidean space was

out of imagination for the medieval scholar. Before Einstein, time was considered

absolute and independent of space and matter. A physical explanation for a universe

emerging out of nothing was unthinkable and incompatible with the mechanics of

their time, may it be Aristotelian, Galileian or Newtonian. The initial singualarity

of an Einstein-Friedman universe is, however, a distinctive topological feature of

the manifold itself. We assume therefore, in accordance with the cosmological

argument, that a finite Aristotelian universe, which manifold can be desribed by a

compact subset of R3 homeomorphic to a ball (a 3-cell), has one and only one god.

So the long of the short of it reads:

In a universe where time is absolute (no special relativity), which is the world Euclid et al believed they lived in, then we can actually construct an algebraic proof that shows that gods exist, and further that only 1 god exists.

Unfortunately, since we now live in post-Einstein reality, said proof is fundamentally flawed and doesn't apply, but its still fun to think about...

At least that's what I got out of it.